01-06-2017, 02:33 PM

Do przetłumaczenia i ogarnięcia jak trochę czasu będzie:

Do the algebra for each pair of genes and then get the product of the expansions within each single pair. That works for any genotypic combination within a gene pair. So for instance, Aa x aa becomes (½ A + ½ a)(a) = ½ Aa + ½ aa.

In the F1 cross of AaBb x Aa Bb, the F2 is the product of two monohybrid crosses. Thus [(A + a)(A + a)] [B + b) (B + b)] = (¼ AA + 2/4 Aa + ¼ aa)(¼ BB + 2/4 Bb + ¼ bb) = the 1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1 expected genotypic ratios which with simple dominance for each pair of genes and no epistasis is reduced to a 9:3:3:1 ratio. Epistasis further reduces these ratios to a 12:3:1, 9:6:1, 9:3:4, 15:1. With three pairs of genes, you add the term (¼ CC + 2/4 Cc + ¼ cc) and multiply it times the products of the a and b terms. You now have fractions based upon 64 rather than 16 because 4 x 4 x4 = 16 as the common denominator. Then you can modify everything with epistasis. With the Chi-square test, you can test any set of classes, such as 9:3:3:1, or what ever, as long as you have a hypothesis, a ratio based upon that hypothesis, and a set of experimental data. The degrees of freedom (df) are equal to the number of classes, minus one in the easiest forms of the Chi-square. ......... See what happens when you ask a professor a "simple" question? You get a lecture!

Do the algebra for each pair of genes and then get the product of the expansions within each single pair. That works for any genotypic combination within a gene pair. So for instance, Aa x aa becomes (½ A + ½ a)(a) = ½ Aa + ½ aa.

In the F1 cross of AaBb x Aa Bb, the F2 is the product of two monohybrid crosses. Thus [(A + a)(A + a)] [B + b) (B + b)] = (¼ AA + 2/4 Aa + ¼ aa)(¼ BB + 2/4 Bb + ¼ bb) = the 1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1 expected genotypic ratios which with simple dominance for each pair of genes and no epistasis is reduced to a 9:3:3:1 ratio. Epistasis further reduces these ratios to a 12:3:1, 9:6:1, 9:3:4, 15:1. With three pairs of genes, you add the term (¼ CC + 2/4 Cc + ¼ cc) and multiply it times the products of the a and b terms. You now have fractions based upon 64 rather than 16 because 4 x 4 x4 = 16 as the common denominator. Then you can modify everything with epistasis. With the Chi-square test, you can test any set of classes, such as 9:3:3:1, or what ever, as long as you have a hypothesis, a ratio based upon that hypothesis, and a set of experimental data. The degrees of freedom (df) are equal to the number of classes, minus one in the easiest forms of the Chi-square. ......... See what happens when you ask a professor a "simple" question? You get a lecture!

"Do what thy manhood bids thee do from none but self expect applause" - Sir Richard Francis Burton